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What is the P-Value in Statistics?

In frequentist statistics, the p-value is a function of the observed sample results (a test statistic) relative to a statistical model, which measures how extreme the observation is.

Since p-value is used in frequentist inference (and not Bayesian inference), it does not in itself support reasoning about the probabilities of hypotheses but is only as a tool for deciding whether to reject the null hypothesis.

How to Use P-Values Correctly

The American Statistics Association Warnings On P-Values

Everyone Uses P-Values, But No One Knows What They Are